There are two design code philosophies for designing steel and reinforced concrete structures. The first, Allowable Stress Design (ASD), has been in use for over a hundred years, whereas the second, Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD), is relatively new. Engineers in Egypt are reluctant to use the newer LRFD philosophy although it is the most widely used in Europe and the USA. Objectives The aim of this research is to explain the basis and differences of the two design philosophies and to compare between them by demonstrating that both philosophies produce similar design results using numerical examples. Within this assignment, students are required to produce a technical proposal on using ASD versus LFRD for the design of steel and/or reinforced concrete structures. The relevant chapters of the Egyptian Codes of Practice are provided and attached below . Reference should also be made to European and USA codes. Students are expected to undertake background research or conduct a literature review on the topic with the ultimate goal of promoting the use of LRFD in Egypt. This will involve sourcing information through journal papers, books, reports and the internet. Students are required to produce a technical proposal in accordance with the following: • The main components of the proposal should include but not be limited to the following: (1) Introduction; (2) Aims and objectives; (3) Literature review information (annotated bibliography style); (4) Methodology and Methods; (5) Time schedule using the Gantt chart; (6) Outcomes; (7) References. • Use 12pt Times New Roman font with 1.5 line space for the main body. • Sections headings are to be in the same font with bold typeface. • Sections are to be numbered sequentially from 1 with any subsections numbered 1.1, etc. • A table of contents must be provided together with lists of figures and tables. • Referencing should adopt the Harvard or APA convention with references listed at the back of the report in alphabetical order by first author. • Figures should be numbered sequentially and given titles. Figures and titles are to be located within the main body placed centrally across the page with no text wrapping and the titles should be beneath the figures. • Tables are to be numbered sequentially and given titles. Tables and titles are to be located within the main body placed centrally across the page with no text wrapping and the title above the table.

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There are two design code philosophies for designing steel and reinforced concrete structures. The first, Allowable Stress Design (ASD), has been in use for over a hundred years, whereas the second, Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD), is relatively new. Engineers in Egypt are reluctant to use the newer LRFD philosophy although it is the most widely used in Europe and the USA.
Objectives
The aim of this research is to explain the basis and differences of the two design philosophies and to compare between them by demonstrating that both philosophies produce similar design results using numerical examples. Within this assignment, students are required to produce a technical proposal on using ASD versus LFRD for the design of steel and/or reinforced concrete structures. The relevant chapters of the Egyptian Codes of Practice are provided and attached below . Reference should also be made to European and USA codes. Students are expected to undertake background research or conduct a literature review on the topic with the ultimate goal of promoting the use of LRFD in Egypt. This will involve sourcing information through journal papers, books, reports and the internet. 

Students are required to produce a technical proposal in accordance with the following: 
• The main components of the proposal should include but not be limited to the following: (1) Introduction; (2) Aims and objectives; (3) Literature review information (annotated bibliography style); (4) Methodology and Methods; (5) Time schedule using the Gantt chart; (6) Outcomes; (7) References.
• Use 12pt Times New Roman font with 1.5 line space for the main body.
• Sections headings are to be in the same font with bold typeface.
• Sections are to be numbered sequentially from 1 with any subsections numbered 1.1, etc.

• A table of contents must be provided together with lists of figures and tables.
• Referencing should adopt the Harvard or APA convention with references listed at the back of the report in alphabetical order by first author.
• Figures should be numbered sequentially and given titles. Figures and titles are to be located within the main body placed centrally across the page with no text wrapping and the titles should be beneath the figures.
• Tables are to be numbered sequentially and given titles. Tables and titles are to be located within the main body placed centrally across the page with no text wrapping and the title above the table.

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