There are two design code philosophies for designing steel and reinforced concrete structures. The first, Allowable Stress Design (ASD), has been in use for over a hundred years, whereas the second, Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD), is relatively new. Engineers in Egypt are reluctant to use the newer LRFD philosophy although it is the most widely used in Europe and the USA. Objectives The aim of this research is to explain the basis and differences of the two design philosophies and to compare between them by demonstrating that both philosophies produce similar design results using numerical examples. Within this assignment, students are required to produce a technical proposal on using ASD versus LFRD for the design of steel and/or reinforced concrete structures. The relevant chapters of the Egyptian Codes of Practice are provided and attached below . Reference should also be made to European and USA codes. Students are expected to undertake background research or conduct a literature review on the topic with the ultimate goal of promoting the use of LRFD in Egypt. This will involve sourcing information through journal papers, books, reports and the internet. Students are required to produce a technical proposal in accordance with the following: • The main components of the proposal should include but not be limited to the following: (1) Introduction; (2) Aims and objectives; (3) Literature review information (annotated bibliography style); (4) Methodology and Methods; (5) Time schedule using the Gantt chart; (6) Outcomes; (7) References. • Use 12pt Times New Roman font with 1.5 line space for the main body. • Sections headings are to be in the same font with bold typeface. • Sections are to be numbered sequentially from 1 with any subsections numbered 1.1, etc. • A table of contents must be provided together with lists of figures and tables. • Referencing should adopt the Harvard or APA convention with references listed at the back of the report in alphabetical order by first author. • Figures should be numbered sequentially and given titles. Figures and titles are to be located within the main body placed centrally across the page with no text wrapping and the titles should be beneath the figures. • Tables are to be numbered sequentially and given titles. Tables and titles are to be located within the main body placed centrally across the page with no text wrapping and the title above the table.

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There are two design code philosophies for designing steel and reinforced concrete structures. The first, Allowable Stress Design (ASD), has been in use for over a hundred years, whereas the second, Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD), is relatively new. Engineers in Egypt are reluctant to use the newer LRFD philosophy although it is the most widely used in Europe and the USA.
Objectives
The aim of this research is to explain the basis and differences of the two design philosophies and to compare between them by demonstrating that both philosophies produce similar design results using numerical examples. Within this assignment, students are required to produce a technical proposal on using ASD versus LFRD for the design of steel and/or reinforced concrete structures. The relevant chapters of the Egyptian Codes of Practice are provided and attached below . Reference should also be made to European and USA codes. Students are expected to undertake background research or conduct a literature review on the topic with the ultimate goal of promoting the use of LRFD in Egypt. This will involve sourcing information through journal papers, books, reports and the internet. 

Students are required to produce a technical proposal in accordance with the following: 
• The main components of the proposal should include but not be limited to the following: (1) Introduction; (2) Aims and objectives; (3) Literature review information (annotated bibliography style); (4) Methodology and Methods; (5) Time schedule using the Gantt chart; (6) Outcomes; (7) References.
• Use 12pt Times New Roman font with 1.5 line space for the main body.
• Sections headings are to be in the same font with bold typeface.
• Sections are to be numbered sequentially from 1 with any subsections numbered 1.1, etc.

• A table of contents must be provided together with lists of figures and tables.
• Referencing should adopt the Harvard or APA convention with references listed at the back of the report in alphabetical order by first author.
• Figures should be numbered sequentially and given titles. Figures and titles are to be located within the main body placed centrally across the page with no text wrapping and the titles should be beneath the figures.
• Tables are to be numbered sequentially and given titles. Tables and titles are to be located within the main body placed centrally across the page with no text wrapping and the title above the table.

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Lashkar-E-Tayyiba’s Recruitment Campaign in the U.S. Constitutes a Security Threat to the U.S.

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Lashkar-E-Tayyiba’s Recruitment Campaign in the U.S. Constitutes a Security Threat to the U.S.

Introduction
This article investigates the origin and the likely impending of Lashkar-E-Tayyib (LeT) by focusing on why the group is commonly overlooked by the intelligence and counter-terrorism communities in the West and particularly the U.S. Even with executing the second most lethal terrorist attack subsequent September 11, LeT has remained under the radar to most of the Western counter-terrorism world. While most of LeT’s activities have been in India sub-continent, nevertheless, this article acknowledges that LeT is a terrorist group with transcontinental reach and motivation. While operating locally, LeT has branches in numerous countries and has openly made threats against the U.S. This article stipulated that understanding its ideology and modus operandi are two of the most significant areas that must be taken into account for a fruitful counter-terrorism approach.

Furthermore, it argues that to understand LeT, it is imperative that we recognize the two dualities that define its missionary and militancy activities in the region. Interestingly, Western recruits come from far more contented upbringings and seem inspired by the organization’s open strategy towards foreigners. Even though there is no tangible evidence that LeT might carry out Mumbai-style attacks on US soil, a significant worry is that its affiliated terrorist groups could employ its network. Moreover, the article suggests that a comprehensive understanding of LeT’s development conveys the most significant implications for U.S. policy since the group constitutes a severe threat to U.S. security interests in the region.

The author’s perspective toward the LeT has evolved, and fueled by an alarming disquietude about its western training recruits in bomb-making as well as assisting them in executing their plans after returning to their respective countries. For this reason, this article intensely focuses on examining the strategic group recruitment in the US along with American inner relationship with the countries of the Indian sub-continent and their strategic responses to security challenges stemming from Lashkar-E-Tayyiba’s terrorist turmoil. 
Based on the supporting evidence and analysis, the article provides the implications of the continued efforts to counter the group capability to launch an attack in the US. To sum up, it offers policy and strategic recommendations for the US and Indian sub-continent to lessen LeT’s threats. 

Assignment: 
Case Study Policy Backgrounder: Lashkar-E-Tayyiba’s Recruitment Campaign in the U.S. Constitutes a Security Threat to the U.S. The research article must discuss and follow the following structure:

Executive Summary
Introduction
Defining the Problem
The Evolution of Lashkar-e-Tayyiba: Operational Ideology, Leadership, and Organizational Structure
LeT Missionary and Militancy Activities
LeT’s Recruitment in the West and Support Networks
Lashkar-e-Tayyiba’s Role in the Indian Sub-continent: Pakistan, India, Afghanistan, and Kashmir
LeT Global Operational Outreach
In-depth Analysis of the United States and Pakistani Responses to LeT’s Terrorist Activities
U.S. Counter Insurgency and counterterrorism Measures Against LeT
Implications and Recommendations
Conclusion

This assignment should be about 11 pages, double spaced, TNR 12. You need to cite all of your information. USE FOOTNOTES citation-use Chicago-Turabian. With at least 40 references. You may also use any additional materials related to the subject.
This article should be a publishable paper when you are finished. You don’t need to write this as if it is only an assignment for this course. Write your document for the entire research community. You want to contribute our knowledge in this field. 

Note:
You may rewrite the introduction to reflect the flow of the article. The introduction gives you an overview of what the case study is all about.

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Unions and HR Management Challenges ” Unionization has been on a relatively slow yet steady decline. Given the change in the workforce dynamics, speculate what segment(s) or types of employees would likely gravitate toward unionization in the current market. Scale the top three (3) reasons for this. Discuss what this means to you as an organizational leader and what you would do with this information. Predict two (2) challenges that HR management may face in the future. Suggest one (1) strategy that HR management could use to mitigate these challenges into a competitive advantage for a company.

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Unions and HR Management Challenges “

  • Unionization has been on a relatively slow yet steady decline. Given the change in the workforce dynamics, speculate what segment(s) or types of employees would likely gravitate toward unionization in the current market. Scale the top three (3) reasons for this. Discuss what this means to you as an organizational leader and what you would do with this information.
  • Predict two (2) challenges that HR management may face in the future. Suggest one (1) strategy that HR management could use to mitigate these challenges into a competitive advantage for a company.
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